Earth’s two polar regions—the Arctic in the north and the Antarctic in the south—experience temperature extremes and seasons during which the sun does not rise. Yet plants and animals make homes in these places. The seas teem with life in both regions. Similar species of plankton and fish that feed ringed seals in the Arctic and penguins in the Antarctic also support productive commercial fisheries. These cold places provide us with food and natural resources. These two polar regions also offer opportunities for international scientific study. We all benefit from their bounty, their biodiversity and their beauty.